Menu
Land and oceans
White roofs could cool cities: study
Enzyme crystal helps crack HIV puzzle
Sugar sweetens decision making
Twilight zone secrets revealed
Astronomers spot asteroid collision
Algae master quantum mechanics
Protein 'ushers' key to beating malaria
Researchers spin artificial bee silk
New view of Pluto increases mystery
Cell's power packs came from within
Antarctic snow linked to WA dry
Termites inspire hydrophobic materials
Study shows why it's scary to lose money
Soil impact underestimated: climate study
Lack of oxygen forced fish's first breath
Harder Sudoku puzzles on the way?
Weed genes could help feed the world
Logging makes forests more flammable: study
Food crisis looms warn scientists
Tiny sensors track 'lost' objects
'Climategate' university orders review
'Plumbing' key to flowering success
New twist on solar cell design
Scientists set new temperature record
Altruism surfaces on slow-sinking ship
The primal instinct to selfishly flee from a dangerous situation takes precedence over helping others - unless you have time on your hands, according to Australian researchers.

Professor Benno Torgler, of the Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, and colleagues, report their work in this week's Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Torgler and colleagues compared the behaviour of individuals on the ill-fated R.M.S. Titanic and R.M.S. Lusitania passenger ships.

They found that the social norm of "women and children first" was deferred to only on the Titanic, where first class passengers also had a higher probability of survival.

In contrast, the situation on the Lusitania favoured survival of the fittest.

"There were substantial behavioural differences on the Lusitania," says Torgler of QUT's School of Economics and Finance.

"Those with the best chance of survival were aged 16-35 with little difference between genders (10.4% females versus 7.9% for males) and first class passengers actually fared worse. This suggests that competition was the strongest driving factor influencing survival".
Time pressure

The Titanic and Lusitania were chosen for the study because of the availability of individual passenger crew data, the similar passenger demographics and the historical timing of the disasters.

"The similarities between the two vessels are uncanny," notes co-author David Savage.

"The mean survival rate, age, proportion of women, and classes of passengers is almost identical. And given that the two events occurred within a couple of years of each other (the Titanic in 1912 and the Lusitania in 1915), we can also assume that the social norms or manners were unchanged", he says.

What differed between the two events was time.

The Titanic took 2 hours and 40 minutes to sink after its collision with an iceberg, whereas the Lusitania was completely submerged 18 minutes after being hit by a German U-boat.

"The shortened disaster time favoured instinctive fight-or-flight behaviour, whereas the lengthier disaster led to the appearance of social norms. We know the first is driven by the rush of adrenaline to the brain, but we don't know exactly when the altruistic behaviour takes over," says Torgler.

"These are true preferences revealed only in test conditions, they aren't something you can accurately assess by surveying responses to hypothetical situations".
Manners irrelevant

Previously, the researchers had noted that British passengers on the Titanic were less likely to survive than all other nationalities.

"This had suggested that English manners were a disadvantage in a life and death situation; but on the Lusitania, these cultural differences didn't seem to make much difference to a passenger's chance of survival", says Savage, adding that this is the subject for another paper.

The group are now looking at human behaviour in risky activities in which people choose to partake, such as mountaineering, as well as other tragedies like 9/11 and the Australian bushfires.

Knowing how individuals and groups make decisions helps to shape policy for disaster situations.

"There's a fine line between crowding out naturally good behaviour and creating policy that has a positive impact on survival outcome," adds Savage.

Print
Horny mother beetles fight for dung
Light-speed computing one step closer
Small asteroids 'just lumps of gravel'
Gene study reveals diverse gut zoo
Dinosaur extinction caused by asteroid: study
Study finds methane bubbling from Arctic
New view reveals Mars' icy history
Some nano-sunscreens 'come at a cost'
Dust bunnies could harbour toxic load
Aphid genome reveals its 'Achilles heel'
Tailored diet may slow down DNA damage
Scientist probe ballistic chameleon tongue
Moa eggshells yield ancient DNA
Toothbrush tech helps buses go green
Gene protects some Tassie devils from tumour
Smaller fish cope better with acidic water
Lunar mirror mystery solved
Parents give fewer bad genes than thought
Women on pill may live longer
Antarctic winds affect key ocean layer
Researchers uncover thalidomide mystery
Boost for evidence of early ocean
Ocean geoengineering may prove lethal
People leave unique 'germ print'
Rogue star on collision course
Butterflies 'fly early as planet warms'
Glaucoma may start in the brain
Tools push back dates for humans on Flores
Menu
Stem cell capsules to target broken bones
Ecstasy damages complex memory: study
Earliest animals flexed their muscles
Insomnia may shrink the brain: study
Experts call for 'resilience thinking'
Tutu's DNA could point to medical cures
Humble algae key to whale evolution
Happiness linked to healthy heart
Fewer cyclones, but more intense: study
Cosmic candles result of colliding stars
Flightless mosquitoes may curb dengue
Childhood poverty may leave its mark
Cautious response to technology strategy
Nanowire RAM to make ever-ready computers
Are non-smokers smarter than smokers?
There's iron in them thar Martian hills
'Shell Crusher' shark swam ancient oceans
Nanotechnology may tap into your mind
Small dogs originated in the Middle East
Brain 'hears' sound of silence
Swimmers 'may not understand' tsunami risk
Altruism surfaces on slow-sinking ship
Chile quake tops Haiti, but less deadly
Weedkiller 'makes boy frogs lay eggs'
Visit Statistics
http://google.com/

http://bing.com/

https://gepatit-info.top/

https://serdechnic.com/

https://buy-meds24.com/

https://dverirespekt.ru/

https://www.sribno.net/

https://undergroundcityphoto.com/

https://detskiezabolevaniya.com/

http://grafaman.ru/

http://innoslicon.com/html/product/index.htm

https://yginekologa.com/

https://yes-com.com/

https://www.baikaleminer.com/

https://bitmaein.com/shop

https://www.artdeko.info/

https://aerodizain.com/

http://xn--d1abj0abs9d.in.ua/

http://lider82.ru/

http://sta-grand.ru/

http://snabs.kz/

https://sky-mine.ru/

https://rybalka-opt.ru/

http://snegozaderzhatel.ru/

https://xn--e1aaajzchnkg.ru.com/

http://hit-kino.ru/

http://www.regionshop.biz/

https://xn--80aaafbn2bc2ahdfrfkln6l.xn--p1ai/

https://pp-budpostach.com.ua/

https://vykup-avto-krasnodar.ru/

https://gcup.ru/

https://mega-polis.biz.ua/

http://vanrise.com.ua/

http://infra-e.ru/

https://veterinariya.com/

https://ponosanet.com/

https://cariestop.com/

https://proartrit.com/

https://elonm.ru/

https://nakozhe.com/

https://spinanebolit.com/

http://zameskino.ru/

http://kinoprinc.ru/

http://pospektr.ru/

http://buypillsonline24h.com/

http://komputers-best.ru/

https://komp-pomosch.ru/