Menu
Land and oceans
White roofs could cool cities: study
Enzyme crystal helps crack HIV puzzle
Sugar sweetens decision making
Twilight zone secrets revealed
Astronomers spot asteroid collision
Algae master quantum mechanics
Protein 'ushers' key to beating malaria
Researchers spin artificial bee silk
New view of Pluto increases mystery
Cell's power packs came from within
Antarctic snow linked to WA dry
Termites inspire hydrophobic materials
Study shows why it's scary to lose money
Soil impact underestimated: climate study
Lack of oxygen forced fish's first breath
Harder Sudoku puzzles on the way?
Weed genes could help feed the world
Logging makes forests more flammable: study
Food crisis looms warn scientists
Tiny sensors track 'lost' objects
'Climategate' university orders review
'Plumbing' key to flowering success
New twist on solar cell design
Scientists set new temperature record
Childhood poverty may leave its mark
It's no surprise that growing up in poverty makes it more likely you'll be poorer as an adult.

But new research shows that the earliest years of life are the most critical in determining future earnings.

Even more strikingly, a growing body of research shows that childhood poverty causes lasting changes in the brain - from its overall structure down to the level of gene expression.

These findings highlight the importance of programs that specifically address the needs of the youngest children, the researchers say.

"Early experiences are built into our bodies, for better or worse," says Professor Jack Shonkoff of Harvard University, speaking at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in San Diego.

"If you begin with the experience of adversity and stress, those get translated into changes in brain function and structure that get translated into changes in cellular and neuronal connections, and most recently, down into lasting changes in how the DNA is expressed," says Professor Thomas Boyce of the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, who has carried out several studies that show these effects.

Poor children perform worse in many ways, says Associate Professor Katherine Magnuson of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, from standardised tests to amount of schooling to behaviour and health.

"We've known this for a long time. What is interesting and emergent is our ability to talk about these as being caused by income per se rather than the range of things that are associated with poverty," says Magnuson.
Long lasting

Professor Greg Duncan of the University of California, Irvine, examined information on income, health, education and other factors for a group of children born between 1968 and 1975 tracked through adulthood.

Duncan found that for children in families earning less than the equivalent of US$25,000 (A$28,000) a year in 2005, a US$3000 (A$3300) increase in household income during the first five years of a child's life translated into 17% higher earnings as an adult, and almost a month's more working hours annually.

The effects lasted at least until age 37 years, and are independent of other factors that are typically associated with low income like education or poor health.

This association disappeared when Duncan looked at the effect of poverty during later years of childhood.

Other studies have found that lower family income correlates with lower cognitive performance in children, says Magnuson.

Why income has such an effect on the brain, on cognitive and behavioural performance, and on future earning could be because income allows parents to buy things that enrich their child's environment like books or quality childcare.

But it also could be because low income creates constant stress that the children feel in the home. Indeed many of the biological changes seen in the brain are consistent with prolonged exposure to stress, says Boyce.
Intervention

Evidence suggests that both of these mechanisms contribute to cognitive and behavioural problems in low-income children. This means interventions need to target more than just early childhood education for children, the researchers agreed.

Intervening early may be important given Duncan's findings.

"We're focusing on the potential for early childhood as a particularly sensitive period," says Duncan. "With all the different economic policies that we've developed, there's never been a distinction based on age.

"We haven't treated families with young kids differently. When we think about these, it's a good opportunity to think of privileging early childhood as being a particularly important period."

Print
Horny mother beetles fight for dung
Light-speed computing one step closer
Small asteroids 'just lumps of gravel'
Gene study reveals diverse gut zoo
Dinosaur extinction caused by asteroid: study
Study finds methane bubbling from Arctic
New view reveals Mars' icy history
Some nano-sunscreens 'come at a cost'
Dust bunnies could harbour toxic load
Aphid genome reveals its 'Achilles heel'
Tailored diet may slow down DNA damage
Scientist probe ballistic chameleon tongue
Moa eggshells yield ancient DNA
Toothbrush tech helps buses go green
Gene protects some Tassie devils from tumour
Smaller fish cope better with acidic water
Lunar mirror mystery solved
Parents give fewer bad genes than thought
Women on pill may live longer
Antarctic winds affect key ocean layer
Researchers uncover thalidomide mystery
Boost for evidence of early ocean
Ocean geoengineering may prove lethal
People leave unique 'germ print'
Rogue star on collision course
Butterflies 'fly early as planet warms'
Glaucoma may start in the brain
Tools push back dates for humans on Flores
Menu
Stem cell capsules to target broken bones
Ecstasy damages complex memory: study
Earliest animals flexed their muscles
Insomnia may shrink the brain: study
Experts call for 'resilience thinking'
Tutu's DNA could point to medical cures
Humble algae key to whale evolution
Happiness linked to healthy heart
Fewer cyclones, but more intense: study
Cosmic candles result of colliding stars
Flightless mosquitoes may curb dengue
Childhood poverty may leave its mark
Cautious response to technology strategy
Nanowire RAM to make ever-ready computers
Are non-smokers smarter than smokers?
There's iron in them thar Martian hills
'Shell Crusher' shark swam ancient oceans
Nanotechnology may tap into your mind
Small dogs originated in the Middle East
Brain 'hears' sound of silence
Swimmers 'may not understand' tsunami risk
Altruism surfaces on slow-sinking ship
Chile quake tops Haiti, but less deadly
Weedkiller 'makes boy frogs lay eggs'
Visit Statistics
http://google.com/

http://bing.com/

https://gepatit-info.top/

https://serdechnic.com/

https://buy-meds24.com/

https://dverirespekt.ru/

https://www.sribno.net/

https://undergroundcityphoto.com/

https://detskiezabolevaniya.com/

http://grafaman.ru/

http://innoslicon.com/html/product/index.htm

https://yginekologa.com/

https://yes-com.com/

https://www.baikaleminer.com/

https://bitmaein.com/shop

https://www.artdeko.info/

https://aerodizain.com/

http://xn--d1abj0abs9d.in.ua/

http://lider82.ru/

http://sta-grand.ru/

http://snabs.kz/

https://sky-mine.ru/

https://rybalka-opt.ru/

http://snegozaderzhatel.ru/

https://xn--e1aaajzchnkg.ru.com/

http://hit-kino.ru/

http://www.regionshop.biz/

https://xn--80aaafbn2bc2ahdfrfkln6l.xn--p1ai/

https://pp-budpostach.com.ua/

https://vykup-avto-krasnodar.ru/

https://gcup.ru/

https://mega-polis.biz.ua/

http://vanrise.com.ua/

http://infra-e.ru/

https://veterinariya.com/

https://ponosanet.com/

https://cariestop.com/

https://proartrit.com/

https://elonm.ru/

https://nakozhe.com/

https://spinanebolit.com/

http://zameskino.ru/

http://kinoprinc.ru/

http://pospektr.ru/

http://buypillsonline24h.com/

http://komputers-best.ru/

https://komp-pomosch.ru/